Steven W. Kubalak

Steven W. Kubalak, Ph.D.
Associate Professor

Member, Center for Anatomical Studies and Education
Maralynne D Mitcham Interprofessional Fellow

Room 615C, Basic Science Building
Office: (843) 792-0624

Email: kubalaks@musc.edu


BS, Biology, Univ. Wisconsin Green Bay, 1982
PhD, Pharmacology, Medical University of South Carolina, 1991
Postdoctoral work at the University of California, San Diego



Teaching Activity:

Coordinator, Human Embryology component,
College of Medicine First-Year Integrated Curriculum (2001-present)

Lecturer and Zone Leader, Medical Gross Anatomy,
College of Medicine First-Year Integrated Curriculum (2014-present)

Assistant Course Director (2015-present) and Lecturer (2012-present), Dental Gross and Neuro-Anatomy, CELL 621
College of Dental Medicine (Summer Semester

Course Director, Integrated Interprofessional Studies
College of Graduate Studies, CGS 756 (2015-present)
Office of Interprofessional Initiatives, IP 756 (2015-present)

Lecturer (2009-present), Molecular Basis of Cardiovascular Disease, MCBP 739
College of Graduate Studies

Facilitator, Interprofessional Day
Office of Interprofessional Initiatives

Member, International Association of Medical Science Educators (2014-present)
Member, American Association of Anatomists (1999-present)


  1. Robichaux J, Fuseler J, Patel S, Kubalak S, Hartstone-Rose A, Ramsdell A. Left-right analysis of mammary gland development in retinoid X receptor-α+/- mice. In Press: Philosophical Transactions B, 2016.
  2. Gruber PG, Wessels A, Kubalak SW.  Development of the Heart and Great Vessels.  In Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Fourth Edition, C. Mavroudis and C. Backer, eds.  Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2013.
  3. Hoover LL, Kubalak SW, Holding Their Own: The Noncanonical Roles of Smad Proteins. Science Signaling. 1(46):pe48, 2008.
  4. Hoover LL, Grant EM, O'Neill ML, Brooks BA, Sreedharan S, Dawson NA, Kubalak SW. Retinoids regulate TGFb signaling at the level of Smad2 phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1783:2279-2286, 2008.
  5. Hoover LL, Burton EG, Brooks BA, Kubalak SW, The Expanding Role for Retinoid Signaling in Heart Development. The Scientific World Journal. 8:194-211, 2008.
  6. Snarr BS, O'Neal JL, Chintalapudi MR, Wirrig EE, Phelps AL, Kubalak SW, Wessels A. Isl1 Expression at the venous pole identifies a novel role for the secondary heart field in cardiac development. Circ. Res. 101: 971-974, 2007.
  7. Menick DR, Renaud L, Bolchez A, Muller GM, Zhou H, Kappler CS, Kubalak SW, Conway SJ, Xu L. Regulation of Ncx1 gene expression in the normal and hypertrophied heart. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences. 1099:195-203, 2007.
  8. Xu L, Renaud L, Muller JG, Baicu CF, Bonnema DD, Zhou H, Kappler CS, Kubalak SW, Zile MR, Conway SJ, Menick DR. Regulation of Ncx1 expression. Identification of regulatory elements mediating cardiac-specific expression and up-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 10;281(45):34430-40. Epub 2006 Sep 10.
  9. Merki E, Zamora M, Raya A, Kawakami Y, Wang J, Zhang X, Burch J, Kubalak SW, Kaliman P, Belmonte JC, Chien KR, Ruiz-Lozano P. Epicardial retinoid X receptor alpha is required for myocardial growth and coronary artery formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 20;102(51):18455-60. Epub 2005 Dec 13.
  10. Hewett KW, Norman LW, Sedmera D, Barker RJ, Justus C, Zhang J, Kubalak SW, Gourdie RG. Knockout of the neural and heart expressed gene HF-1b results in apical deficits of ventricular structure and activation. Cardiovasc Res. 2005 Aug 15;67(3):548-60.
  11. Jenkins SD, Hutson DR, Kubalak SW. Malformation of the epicardium in the RXRa-/- is due to delayed budding of proepicardial-derived cell clusters. Dev Dyn. 2005 Jul;233(3):1091-1101.
  12. Eisenberg, LM, SW Kubalak, CA Eisenberg. Stem cells and the formation of the myocardium in the vertebrate embryo. Anat. Rec. 276:2-12, 2004.
  13. Gourdie, RG, Kubalak SW, O'Brien TX, Chien KR, Mikawa T. Development of cardiac pacemaking and conduction system lineages. In: Molecular Basis of Cardiovascular Disease, 2nd ed (K.R. Chien), 225-237, 2004.
  14. Sedmera, D, M Reckova, A deAlmeida, SR Coppen, SW Kubalak, RG Gourdie, Spatiotemporal pattern of commitment to slowed proliferation in the embryonic mouse heart indicates progressive differentiation of the cardiac conduction system. Anat Rec, 274:773-777, 2003.
  15. Kubalak SW, Hutson DR, Scott KK, Shannon RA Elevated transforming growth factor-b2 enhances apoptosis and contributes to abnormal outflow tract and aortic sac development in RXRa-knockout embryos. Development, 2002, Feb;129(3):733-746.
  16. Nguyen-Tran VT, Kubalak SW, Minamisawa S, Fiset C, Wollert KC, Brown AB, Ruiz-Lozano P, Barrere-Lemaire S, Kondo R, Norman LW, Gourdie RG, Rahme MM, Feld GK, Clark RB, Giles WR, Chien KR. A novel genetic pathway for sudden cardiac death via defects in the transition between ventricular and conduction system cell lineages. Cell. 2000 Sep 1;102(5):671-82.
  17. Doevendans PA, Kubalak SW, An RH, Becker DK, Chien KR, Kass RS. Differentiation of cardiomyocytes in floating embryoid bodies is comparable to fetal cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 May;32(5):839-51.
  18. Hertig CM, Kubalak SW, Wang Y, Chien KR. Synergistic roles of neuregulin-1 and insulin-like growth factor-I in activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and cardiac chamber morphogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 24;274(52):37362-9.
  19. Gruber PJ, Kubalak SW, Chien KR. Downregulation of atrial markers during cardiac chamber morphogenesis is irreversible in murine embryos. Development. 1998 Nov;125(22):4427-38.
  20. Chen J, Kubalak SW, Chien KR. Ventricular muscle-restricted targeting of the RXRa gene reveals a non-cell-autonomous requirement in cardiac chamber morphogenesis. Development. 1998 May;125(10):1943-9.
Last updated on 07-Mar-2018

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