Thomas C. Trusk

Thomas C. Trusk, Ph.D.
Research Associate Professor

Director, Josh Spruill Imaging Facility

Room 643, Basic Science Building
Office: (843) 792-3756

Email: truskt@musc.edu


BA Psychology St. Mary's College, Winona, MN 1975
MS Psychology Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 1978
PhD Biology Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 1986
Postdoctoral work at Medical College of Wisconsin 1986-1990



Research Interests:

Development of the heart and circulatory system; light, fluorescent, confocal and video microscopy; image analysis; three-dimensional reconstruction; 3D printing; and biofabrication.


  1. Saxon JG, Baer DR, Barton JA, Hawkins T, Wu B, Trusk TC, Harris SE, Zhou B, Mishina Y, Sugi Y. BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage is required for AV endocardial cushion maturation and remodeling. Dev Biol. 2017, Aug 5 PMID: 28790014 doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2017.08.008
  2. JiaJia, Coyle R, Richards DJ, Lloyd Berry C, Walker Barrs R, Biggs J, James Chou C, Trusk TC, Mei Y. Development of peptide-functionalized synthetic hydrogel microarrays for stem cell and tissue engineering applications. Acta Biomater. 2016, Sep 6. pii: S1742-7061(16)30469-X PMID: 27612960 PMCID: PMC5146757
  3. Purves JT, Spruill L, Rovner E, Borisko E, McCants A, Mugo E, Wingard A, Trusk TC, Bacro T, Hughes FM Jr. A three dimensional nerve map of human bladder trigone. Neurourol Urodyn. 2016, Jun 6. PMID: 27265789
  4. Dennis SG, Trusk T, Richards D, Jia J, Tan Y, Mei Y, Fann S, Markwald, R, Yost, M. Viability of Bioprinted Cellular Constructs Using a Three Dispenser Cartesian Printer. J Vis Exp. 2015, (103), e53156 PMID: 26436877 PMCID: PMC4692613
  5. Lockhart MM, Boukens BJ, Phelps AL, Brown CL, Toomer KA, Burns TA, Mukherjee RD, Norris RA, Trusk TC, van den Hoff MJ, Wessels A. Alk3 mediated Bmp signaling controls the contribution of epicardially derived cells to the tissues of the atrioventricular junction. Dev Biol. 2014, 396(1):8-18 PMID: 25300579 PMCID: PMC4252836
  6. Jia J, Richards DJ, Pollard S, Tan Y, Rodriguez J, Visconti RP, Trusk TC, Yost MJ, Yao H, Markwald RR, Mei Y. Engineering alginate as bioink for bioprinting. Acta Biomater. 2014, 10(10):4323-31 PMID: 24998183 PMCID: PMC4350909
  7. Tan Y, Richards DJ, Trusk TC, Visconti RP, Yost MJ, Kindy MS, Drake CJ, Argraves WS, Markwald RR, Mei Y. 3D printing facilitated scaffold-free tissue unit fabrication. Biofabrication. 2014, 6(2):024111 PMID: 24717646 PMCID: PMC4418504
  8. Czajka CA, Mehesz AN, Trusk TC, Yost MJ, Drake CJ. Scaffold-free tissue engineering: organization of the tissue cytoskeleton and its effects on tissue shape. Ann Biomed Eng. 2014, 42(5):1049-61 PMID: 24531747 PMCID: PMC3983990
  9. Twal WO, Klatt SC, Harikrishnan K, Gerges E, Cooley MA, Trusk TC, Zhou B, Gabr MG, Shazly T, Lessner SM, Markwald RR, Argraves WS. Cellularized microcarriers as adhesive building blocks for fabrication of tubular tissue constructs. Ann Biomed Eng. 2014, 42(7):1470-81 PMID: 23943070 PMCID: PMC3925209
  10. Damon BJ, Rémond MC, Bigelow MR, Trusk TC, Xie W, Perucchio R, Sedmera D, Denslow S, Thompson RP. Patterns of muscular strain in the embryonic heart wall. Dev Dyn. 2009, 238(6):1535-46 PMID: 19418446 PMCID: PMC2757264
  11. Wirrig EE, Snarr BS, Chintalapudi MR, O'neal JL, Phelps AL, Barth JL, Fresco VM, Kern CB, Mjaatvedt CH, Toole BP, Hoffman S, Trusk TC, Argraves WS, Wessels A. Cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1), an extracellular matrix component playing an important role in heart development. Dev Biol. 2007, 310(2):291-303 PMID: 17822691 PMCID: PMC2254939
  12. Snarr BS, Wirrig EE, Phelps AL, Trusk TC, Wessels A. A spatiotemporal evaluation of the contribution of the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion to cardiac development. Dev Dyn. 2007, 236(5):1287-94 PMID: 17265457 PMCID: PMC4003411
  13. Norris RA, Damon B, Mironov V, Kasyanov V, Ramamurthi A, Moreno-Rodriguez R, Trusk T, Potts JD, Goodwin RL, Davis J, Hoffman S, Wen X, Sugi Y, Kern CB, Mjaatvedt CH, Turner DK, Oka T, Conway SJ, Molkentin JD, Forgacs G, Markwald RR. Periostin regulates collagen fibrillogenesis and the biomechanical properties of connective tissues. J Cell Biochem. 2007, 101(3):695-711 PMID: 17226767 PMCID: PMC3393091
  14. Mironov V, Kasyanov VA, Yost MJ, Visconti R, Twal W, Trusk T, Wen X, Ozolanta I, Kadishs A, Prestwich GD, Terracio L, Markwald RR. Cardiovascular tissue engineering I. Perfusion bioreactors: a review. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2006, 16(2):111-30 PMID: 16700652
  15. Drake CJ, Wessels A, Trusk T, Little CD. Elevated vascular endothelial cell growth factor affects mesocardial morphogenesis and inhibits normal heart bending. Dev Dyn. 2006, 235(1):10-8 PMID: 16170779
  16. Thompson RP, Reckova M, deAlmeida A, Bigelow MR, Stanley CP, Spruill JB, Trusk TT, Sedmera D. The oldest, toughest cells in the heart. Novartis Found Symp. 2003, 250:157-74 PMID: 12956329
  17. Wessels A, Phelps A, Trusk TC, Davis DL, Edwards AV, Burch JB, Juraszek AL. Mouse models for cardiac conduction system development. Novartis Found Symp. 2003, 250:44-59 PMID: 12956323
  18. Mironov V, Boland T, Trusk T, Forgacs G, Markwald RR. Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering. Trends Biotechnol. 2003, 21(4):157-61 Erratum in: Trends Biotechnol 2004 Jun;22(6):265 PMID: 12679063
  19. Ogilvie RW, Blue AV, Trusk T. Computer-administered formative quizzes in a basic science course. Acad Med. 1999, 74(5):574-5 PMID: 10676188
  20. Ogilvie RW, Trusk TC, Blue AV. Students' attitudes towards computer testing in a basic science course. Med Educ. 1999, 33(11):828-31 PMID: 10583791
  21. Drake CJ, Brandt SJ, Trusk TC, Little CD. TAL1/SCL is expressed in endothelial progenitor cells/angioblasts and defines a dorsal-to-ventral gradient of vasculogenesis. Dev Biol. 1997, 192(1):17-30 PMID: 9405094
  22. Markwald R, Eisenberg C, Eisenberg L, Trusk T, Sugi Y. Epithelial-mesenchymal transformations in early avian heart development. Acta Anat (Basel). 1996, 156(3):173-86 PMID: 9124035
Last updated on 28-Dec-2017

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